While all this was taking place the Spanish government remained silent, but its actions showed in a way that left no room for doubt that it was on the side of the friars, abandoning the people who bore all the burdens of the state. The preface of the ”Noli me tangere” states the purpose of its author, which was no other than to expose the sufferings of the Filipino people to the public gaze, as the ancients did with their sick, so that the merciful and generous might suggest and apply a suitable cure. Mabini’s La Revolucion Filipina, translated into English by Leon Ma. If the government is composed of the very sons of the people, it must necessarily fall. Seeing that Marcelo del Pilar was editing the paper with rare ability, assisted by a sufficient number of competent contributors, Rizal left its staff to give his work a more fit and forceful vehicle. To say that if Aguinaldo, instead of killing Luna (allowing Luna to be killed), had supported him with all his power, the Revolution would have triumphed, would be presumption indeed, but I have not the least doubt that the Americans would have had a higher regard for the courage and military abilities of the Filipinos. Convinced that the insurrection could not be the work of the unlettered but rather of the country’s educated class, they also ordered the arrest of all the prominent Filipinos in every province. Only after the outbreak of hostilities, when the telegraph lines had already been cut, did he name General Luna commander of the forces operating around Manila, but by that time the various army units had already evacuated their old emplacements, and communications among them had become slow and hazardous. Again I demurred, saying that as soon as I did what they required, my countrymen, in their state of mind at that time, would forthwith withdraw their confidence from me, and, having- thus lost my influence over the Filipinos, I would be useless for the purposes of pacification or any other advantageous objective. The Spanish text used was that published in “La Revol… We fought in the conviction that our dignity and sense of duty required the sacrifice of defending our freedoms as long as we could, since without them social equality between the dominant class and the native population would be impossible in practice and perfect justice among us could not have been achieved. But if the organization of political associations had been permitted in the archipelago, and if the middle class, which was the most educated and influential, had been able to move freely, it could have undoubtedly calmed the people’s anger and obstructed the growth of the Katipunan since that class was resolutely in favour of the Liga’s program, even after having endured most cruel sufferings, and even more after the Pact of Biak-na-Bato. The United States Government shares the same belief, and I hope that this essay, by showing it the past, will help to lead it out of error and prevent the horrors of a new revolution. The book contains various other scenes from Philippine life as it actually was which are arranged artistically in the novel to give unity of time and place and heighten the interest of the reader. How was it that they forgot those sweet and gentle accents that had worked such miracles? Apolinario Mabini (July 23, 1864–May 13, 1903) was the first prime minister of the Philippines. Due to the exigencies of the times, Mabini wanted a strong president, with congress serving as … Guerrero, is a compact analysis and commentary on the Philippine Revolution which was referred to in the book as the revolutions against Spain and the United States of America. This is shown by a report in the newspaper La Independencia, inspired by Luna and published a few days before his death, which stated that the Paterno-Buencamino cabinet would be replaced by another in which Luna would be prime minister as well as war minister. He formulated the principles of a democratic popular government, endowing the historical struggles of the Filipino people with a coherent ideological orientation. Aguinaldo therefore ruined himself, damned by his own deeds. A powerful foreign government determined to impose its authority by force, without regard for the aspirations of the conquered people, can, of course, subjugate them, but such a government will be able to escape uprisings only after utterly extinguishing all the energies of the people in the course of long and sanguinary struggles. Rizal’s public execution, on December 30, 1896, so enraged and united Filipinos as to make permanent retention of power by Spain clearly impossible. While Luna was being murdered. After the U.S. Navy commodore George Dewey annihilated the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay on May 1, 1898, Aguinaldo immediately returned to the Philippines. We then fixed the objectives of the society in a short program couched in the following or equivalent language: to contribute to the support of La Solidaridad and the reforms it asked; to raise funds to meet the expenses not only of the periodical but also of the public meetings organized to support such reforms and of the (Spanish) parliamentarians who would advocate them; in brief, to have recourse to all peaceful and legal means, thus transforming the society into a political party. However, he resumed command of the defensive operations north of Manila when the Philippine Government was compelled to leave Malolos for San Isidro in the province of Nueva Ecija. It could not be otherwise for when the Spaniards established their rule in the islands, toward the middle of the 16th century, the social organization of the Filipinos was still in a rudimentary stage. The death of Andres Bonifacio had plainly shown in Mr Aguinalclo a boundless appetite for power, and Luna’s personal enemies exploited this weakness of Aguinaldo with skillful intrigues in order to encompass Luna’s ruin. Now that the Filipino people have submitted themselves to the authority of the United States to escape their ruin, my continued stay in Guam could have been interpreted as contravening the will of the people, as persisting in a desperate prolongation of the strife. He made the plans for the revolutionary government. Mabini: A Century After His Passing . It was because whoever acts in bad faith corrupts himself, and the corrupt hearkens not to the voice of reason but to that of passion. He began the revolution anew, this time against the United States, which had assumed title to the Philippines as a result of the Spanish defeat. And so it came about that many of the discontented remained afield with forebodings of grave and unpredictable events. Having completed the domination of Luzon and the Bisayas, the Spaniards divided the conquered country into districts which they termed encomiendas. The sudden general uprising had at one blow destroyed the structure established by the Spanish administration in the provinces and towns of the archipelago, and it was therefore urgently necessary to found a new structure so that anarchy might not lead to fatal consequences. I could not keep my promise because after our meeting I did not get to see Mr Aguinaldo until after some time when he came expressly to seek my advice on whether or not it would be expedient to reorganize the cabinet. So it came to pass that, when least expected, a riot broke out to murder the parish priest who, oddly enough, was not to be found in the parish-house, while the constabulary, on the other hand, was able to surprise and capture a number of the rioters. “I spent 1886-87 in Lipa. Apolinario Mabini was to the revolutionary government the ideologist and moral voice. I would like to live long enough to see how a mind like this will lead society.” Reflecting that they would be compelled by lack of arms to surrender later under worse conditions, the chieftains accepted the offer, encouraged by a design to spend the money on the purchase of arms with which they would return to the archipelago at the first favourable opportunity. Had Luna been alive, I am sure that Otis’s mortal blow would have been parried or at least timely prevented, and Mr Aguinaldo’s unfitness for military command would not have been exposed so clearly. Such provocation was, of course, childish but, for that very reason, rash in the extreme. Instead of organizing fresh uprisings I shall seek the means to avoid them, for that, it seems to me, is the duty in times of peace of every honest citizen who truly loves his country. It should be realized that this virtue was not merely necessary in the legendary age of romance but one of the great imperatives in the life of peoples since, if woman finds simple respect and consideration within her customary ambit, she quickly acquires that sense of dignity which protects her from many frailties, a dignity which, passed on to her sons, instils in them courage and fortitude for great enterprises and heroic deeds. Then, taking advantage of the confusion such a disaster would cause, Ibarra, at the head of a gang of outlaws who were at his orders, would force his way into Intramuros, take his sweetheart away from the Santa Clara nunnery, and escape with her. In August 1896 the head of the printing press of the Diario de Manila, having discovered that some of his employees belonged to a secret society, handed them over to the constabulary for the corresponding investigation. With the handful of arms thus captured, the citizens of Noveleta, under the command of Don Artemio Ricarte, threw back the forces of General Blanco on the 9th November 1896, while those of Kawit, under the orders of Don Emilio Aguinaldo, the town mayor, and of Don Candido Tirona, who died in the encounter, were able to retake, on the 11th of the same month, the powder-magazine of Binacayan, which had fallen to the Spaniards a few days before. If the United States is the absolute owner of the islands, Congress has absolute power to legislate on them, and hence can fix at its discretion the political status and civil rights of the inhabitants. I am sure that I have chronicled events as I saw them happen or heard about them, and that I have passed judgment on them as dispassionately as possible, but, if I have been mistaken or unjust by involuntary omission or because of wrong information, I am ready to correct my mistakes or make such amends as may be proper. The BRP Apolinario Mabini is one of the three Jacinto-class corvettes, and are considered as one of the most modern ships in the Philippine Navy.She was originally called HMS Plover during her service with the Royal Navy.Named after Apolinario Mabini, a hero of the Philippine revolution and a former prime minister, she is currently assigned with the Patrol Force of the Philippine Fleet. He’s exclusively a product of local educational institutions. I was imprisoned by the Spaniards in October of that year, and released in June the following year. A number of copying or proof-reading errors have been corrected; for instance, “Bonifacio y sus secretarios” in Chapter VIII should obviously read “Bonifacio y sus sectarios”. He was assisted in his multiple functions, although with more independence and greater powers than ordinary secretaries, by the director general of the public treasury, in affairs pertaining to this field; the director general of civil administration, in affairs pertaining to police, public works, communications, agriculture, industry, commerce, mines, forests, public instruction and others; and by the deputy commander-in-chief in military matters. I am, however, convinced that the true minister of God is not one who wears a cassock, but everyone who proclaims His glory by good works, of service to the greatest possible number of His creatures, and I shall endeavour to be faithful to your desires as long as I have the strength to do so. Their awakening became even more thorough when the Filipino secular clergy, led by Father Burgos, appealed to the Spanish throne and Rome for the recovery of the parishes which the Spanish government had taken from them and given to the friars, and, as well, to establish that the friars, confining themselves to missionary work, should turn over all parishes to the Spanish and Filipino secular clergy in accordance with canon law. Did the Spaniards know how to profit by this advice to them? BY RADO GATCHALIAN – (Introspection on the life of Philippine hero Apolinario Mabini) Apolinario Mabini was born on 23 July 1864 in Tanauan, Batangas. Since it is unnatural for a being to submit to its own destruction, the people must exert all their efforts to destroy the government which prevents their development. Those who were in favour of keeping up the fortnightly publication formed one group, called the Compromisarios, because each one engaged to pay a monthly contribution of five pesos to meet its expenses. Andres Bonifacio, for his part, reorganized the society under the name of Katipunan ng manga Anak ng Bayan (Association of the Sons of the People), already with independence as its objective. This transpired two months before the declaration of war between the United States and Spain, which was soon followed by the annihilation of the Spanish fleet in the Philippines by Admiral Dewey on the 1st May 1898, and Mr Aguinaldo’s return to the islands. Identifying the aggrandizement of the people with his own, he judged the worth of men not by their ability, character and patriotism but rather by their degree of friendship and kinship with him; and, anxious to secure the readiness of his favourites to sacrifice themselves for him, he was tolerant even of their transgressions. The Katipunan grew very rapidly because the insolent and provocative way in which the friars carried out their campaign (against reforms) had exasperated the masses. Fighting to the limits of our strength and of reasonableness, all we have accomplished has been to show our love of freedom; now that the United States have seen fit to recognize we are entitled to a measure of that freedom, guaranteeing to each citizen the exercise of certain rights which make our communal life less constricted, it is incumbent upon us to show that all we want are those rights, that all we desire is freedom of action to increase our treasury of culture and welfare, thus accrediting the capacity which justifies our claim to the promised recognition of the remainder of our freedom. However, I had suffered a paralytic stroke six months before the uprising and I attribute to this circumstance my not having been beaten up and shot together with Don Domingo Franco and others. I said finally that, far from opposing the plans of the Americans, I had tried to make known in all sincerity the true sentiments of the Filipinos in general and the revolutionists in particular, so that ignorance of these sentiments might not lead to the formulation of a mistaken policy prejudicial to the cause of peace, and that I wanted to preserve my good repute at all costs to be useful not only to the Filipinos but also to the Americans. By this time General Anderson’s brigade had already landed in Cavite, and the remaining forces commanded by General Merritt were beginning to arrive, making relations with the Americans more troublesome. After the capitulation of Manila, the Philippine Government moved from Bacoor, Cavite, to Malolos, Bulacan, where the newly created Congress held its first session. Until now I cannot believe that Luna was plotting to wrest from Mr Aguinaldo the high office he held although Luna certainly aspired to be prime minister instead of Mr Paterno, with whom Luna disagreed because the former’s autonomy program was a violation of the fundamental law of the State and as such was a punishable crime. The love and respect that everyone professed for Rizal, Marcelo, del Pilar and all the other patriots who collaborated with them in the great work of national regeneration manifested clearly and openly the political aspirations of the Filipinos. V. Reforms Sought by La Solidaridad; VI. Mabini was most active in the revolution in 1898, when he became the chief adviser of Gen. Aguinaldo during the revolution. Rizal's Novels Liga Filipina and the Katipunan; VIII. Apolinario Mabini was way ahead of his time. There were also a number of katipuneros in San Francisco de Malabon who obeyed the latter. Some weeks later Mr Aguinaldo sent a telegram asking Luna to see him in Cabanatuan for an exchange of views, but when Luna arrived in Cabanatuan he met not Aguinaldo but death by treachery plotted by the very same soldiers whom he had disarmed and court-martialled for abandonment of their post and disobedience to his orders (he did not find Aguinaldo at home and was treacherously murdered by the soldiers who were on sentry duty there). He is regarded as the "utak ng himagsikan" or "brain of the revolution" and is also to be considered to be as the National Hero here in the Philippines, he was able to persuade other heroes including José Rizalthe national hero of th… A more positive incentive was needed, an objective concealed but more realistic, such as to make one’s fortune. The archipelago was not represented in the Spanish parliament. This Englishing of Apolinario Mabini’s “La Revolucion Filipina”, commissioned by the National Historical Commission, was done in a little more than a week following May Day 1969 under great pressure of time and official business, and may have suffered in consequence. Whether soldiers, priests or merchants, the conquerors went and will go after money, and, whatever their pretensions of humanitarian sentiments, will not put them into practice except as a means to attain their original objective. The Americans landed in Parañaque and attacked Manila, ignoring the Filipino besieging forces. During his short life, Mabini suffered from paraplegia — paralysis of the legs —… It might be outdated or ideologically biased. I can avow that the United States will very probably try to fulfill their pledges inasmuch as they know: (1) that their sovereignty has not been sought by the Filipinos but rather has been imposed upon them; (2) that whether the present cessation of hostilities is to become a true peace or a simple truce, more or less extended, will depend on their treatment of the Filipinos; (3) that Spain, in prohibiting in the Philippines the organization of associations or political parties to prevent their becoming spokesmen of the desires of the people, fomented the organization of partisan bands, and, in proscribing the Liga Filipina, opened the way for the Katipunan; and (4) lastly, that any colonial regime, which does not know how to adjust itself to the needs aroused by the ever increasing culture of the colonized and by their ever easier and more intimate intercourse with civilized countries, encourages the separation of the colony and, at the same time, political corruption and decadence in the metropolis. Above all let us not forget that, if we do not grow, we shall have died without ever having been great, unable to reach maturity, which is proper of a degenerate race. Contents. It is useless, true enough, to ask that it look after the interests of the conquered country in preference to its own, for its vaunted humanitarian sentiments are as a rule only a mask to hide its real intentions, but, since it is fatuous to go against the laws of nature, it would be a measure of the highest political wisdom for the conqueror to conciliate instead of antagonizing the conquered. Faced with this state of affairs, all those Filipinos concerned with the future of their country could not remain indifferent. In truth the merit of Rizal’s sacrifice consists precisely in that it was voluntary and conscious. Totalitarian. When the latter, upon arrival, proclaimed to the people the readiness of the United States to help the Filipinos regain their natural rights, everyone thought that the government of that country, recognizing Mr Aguinaldo as the representative of the Filipino people, had entered into a formal agreement with him, and so each province, acknowledging his indisputable leadership, went into action to fight the Spanish forces within its boundaries. It was necessary to picture the miseries of the Filipinos more movingly, so that the abuses, and the afflictions they caused, might be publicly revealed in the most vivid colours of reality. The awakening was painful, and working to stay alive more painful still, but one must live. "I was paralyzed in January 1896. The abuses being committed in the Philippines found no echo in Spain, nor did the complaints of the Filipinos, because the latter had no representatives in the parliament, and because the friars and the officials of the insular government both had reason to conceal abuses and complaints and to lead the Spanish nation to believe that the natives were content with the existing regime and would rebel if it were changed. Nothwithstanding, Aguinaldo established his government in Tarlac, wasting his time on political and literary activites, a negligence which General Otis exploited by landing his infantry in San Fabian while his cavalry, wheeling through San Jose and Umingan, took San Quintin and Tayug, thus cutting all of Mr Aguinaldo’s lines of retreat and giving the death-blow to the Revolution. Since then, it has been a major biennial program of the PFRD. Contents. It is a pity that a biography of Mabini, however brief, should not be available with his “exemplary history” of the Revolution to whose spirit and substance he gave such significant shape. He approved my proposal and offered to make me the head of one of the new departments. Going back to Mr Aguinaldo, I hope and pray that my observations, made without rancour and only in the performance of a painful duty, will not increase the bitterness in his heart but will rather awaken in him an ardent desire to make up for his past and recapture the general esteem with noteworthy acts of unselfishness and abnegation. How shall we get foreigners to respect our women when we ourselves set the example of offending them? My conscience told me it was blasphemy to ask God’s help in doing something He himself abhorred. Very few Filipinos secured employment as army officers, as officials in the civil administration, or as judges and prosecuting attorneys. Since the latter were tortured to compel them to admit their complicity in the insurrection, and they knew nothing about it, they could not escape these sufferings. The Philippine Revolution by Apolinario Mabini Mabini’s " The Philippine Revolution" was written in 1901-1903 as both a record and critique of the movement that set up the First Philippine Republic, as well as of the years of the Philippines as a self-governing nation. The Philippine priests and lawyers who were Burgos’s contemporaries, with the exception of sons of Spaniards, knew Latin perfectly well but hardly any Spanish because the educational system was wholly religious. In the chivalrous tradition of ancient times the principal virtue of the knight without fear and without reproach was respect for womanhood because the custom of protecting the honour and life of the weak and defenceless surely showed greatness of soul and nobility of heart. Subsequently a small monthly contribution was required from every member, the proceeds of which were applied to the expenses of La Solidaridad, which were the most urgently to be met. Numerous quasi-religious uprisings had punctuated the long era of Spanish sovereignty over the Philippines, but none possessed sufficient coordination to oust the Europeans. By “political revolution,” I understand a popular movement designed to cause a drastic change in the organization and action of the three public powers; the legislative, executive and judicial. Conclusion . Apolinario Mabini y Maranan (July 23, 1864 – May 13, 1903) was a Filipino revolutionary leader, educator, lawyer, and statesman who served first as a legal and constitutional adviser to the Revolutionary Government, and then as the first Prime Minister of the Philippines upon the establishment of the First Philippine Republic. 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